Wednesday, March 28, 2012

Arthropoda (Joint legged animals)

Cnidaria (Coelenterata)

Gorgonia (Sea fan)

Aurelia (Jelly fish)
Pennatula (Sea pen)

Adamsia (Sea anemone)
Brain coral (Meandrina)

Coral reef

Sponges (Porifers)

Euspongia (Bath sponge)


Digestion and Absorption

Nutrition is the getting and utilization of energy rich nutrients (food) by an organism.
Food provides energy for life activities, materials for growth, maintains body temperature and repair tissues.
Food consists of carbohydrates, proteins, fats (lipids), vitamins, minerals and water.

Breathing and Exchange of gases

Respiration is the oxidation of nutrients in the living cells to release energy for biological work. Breathing is the exchange of O2 from the atmosphere with CO2 produced by the cells.

Body fluids and Circulation

Circulation is the transport of nutrients, oxygen, COand excretory products to the concerned tissues or organs.
For circulation, simple organisms (spongescoelenterates etc) use water from their surroundings. Complex organisms use body fluids (blood & lymph) for circulation.

Excretory Products and their Elimination

Excretion is the elimination of metabolic wastes like ammonia, urea, uric acid etc. from the tissues. It is 3 types:
1.  Ammonotelism: Process of excretion of NH3.
Ammonotelic animals: Aquatic invertebrates, bony fishes, aquatic amphibians, tadpoles, aquatic insects etc.

Locomotion and movement

Locomotion is the voluntary movements resulting in a change in location.
Types of movement in human being
· Amoeboid movement: By pseudopodia. E.g. Macrophages, leucocytes, cytoskeletal elements like microfilaments etc.
· Ciliary movement: By cilia. E.g. ciliary movements in trachea (to remove dust particles and foreign substances), ciliary movements in oviducts (for the passage of ova).
·  Muscular movement: By muscles. E.g. movements of limbs.

Neural control and co-ordination

-    Controls and coordinates the body activities. 
-    Conducts and integrates the information.
-    Responses to stimuli.

Chemical co-ordination

Endocrine system includes endocrine glands and their secretions (hormones).
Hormones are non-nutrient chemicals that act as intercellular messengers and are produced in trace amounts.

Structural Organization in Animals

Click here for PDF 
A group of cells having same origin, structure and function are called the tissues. Animal tissues are 4 types:
(i)     Epithelial             (ii)   Connective
(iii)   Muscular             (iv)  Neural

The Living World

Life is a unique, complex organization of molecules, expressing through chemical reactions which lead to growth, development, responsiveness, adaptation & reproduction.

Sunday, March 11, 2012

Comparison of different types of muscles

Comparison between cartilage and bone

Comparison between Tendon and Ligament

Comparison between male rat and female rat

Comparison between male frog and female frog

Comparison between male cockroach and female cockroach (Periplaneta americana)

Comparison between Indian elephant and African elephant

Comparison between flying birds and flightless birds

Comparison between Lizards and Snakes