Monday, April 30, 2012

8. Environmental issues

Human population explosion increases the demand for food, water, home, electricity, roads, automobiles etc.
It leads to pollution of air, water and soil.
Pollution is any undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, land, water or soil. Agents that cause pollution are called as pollutants.
The Government of India has passed the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 to control environmental pollution and protect and improve the quality of our environment.

7. Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a functional unit of nature, where living organisms interact among themselves and also with the surrounding physical environment.

6. Organisms and populations

Human population explosion increases the demand for food, water, home, electricity, roads, automobiles etc.
It leads to pollution of air, water and soil.

5. Biotechnology and its applications

Biotechnology has a wide range application such as biopharmaceuticals, therapeutics, diagnostics, genetically modified crops for agriculture, processed food, bioremediation, waste treatment and energy production.
Biotechnology has 3 critical research areas:

4. Biotechnology: Principles & Processes

Biotechnology deals with techniques of using live organisms or their enzymes for products and processes useful to humans.
The European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) defines Biotechnology as ‘the integration of natural science and organisms, cells, parts thereof, and molecular analogues for products and services’.

3. Strategies for enhancement in food production

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-    It is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock by applying scientific principles.
-    It deals with
o The care & breeding of livestock (buffaloes, cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, bees, silkworms etc).
o Poultry farming and fisheries.

2. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants

All flowering plants (angiosperms) show sexual reproduction.

1. Reproduction in organisms

-    Reproduction is a process in which an organism gives rise to young ones (offspring) similar to itself.
-    The period from birth to the natural death of an organism represents its life span.
-    No individual is immortal, except unicellular organisms. There is no natural death in unicellular organisms.

7. Microbes in human welfare

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·   Lactobacillus or Lactic acid bacteria (LAB):
-    Convert milk to curd.
-    LAB produces acids that coagulate and partially digest the milk proteins.
-    A small amount of curd (which contains LAB) + fresh milk converts to curd. It also increases vitamin B12.
-    In stomach, LAB helps to check pathogens.

Human health and Infectious diseases

Health is a state of complete physical, mental & social well-being. Health is affected by genetic disorders, Infections, change in life style (food, water, rest, exercise, habits etc).
Diseases may be Infectious or Non-infectious.

5. Evolution

Evolution is an orderly change from one form to another.
Evolutionary Biology: Study of history of life forms.

Population Explosion and Contraceptive Methods


1. Human reproduction

Reproduction is the production of young ones by an organism. Humans are sexually reproducing and viviparous.